Home ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY Was already discovered by….great mathematician-astronomers

Was already discovered by….great mathematician-astronomers

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  • Āryabhatta (b. 476 AD – 550) is the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.
  • Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy, some of which are lost.
  • Aryabhatta was aware about Mensuration and trigonometryIn Ganitapada 6, Aryabhata gives the area of triangle astribhujasya phalashariram samadalakoti bhujardhasamvargah that translates to: for a triangle, the result of a perpendicular with the half-side is the area.
  • Aryabhatta was known about Indeterminate EquationsA problem of great interest to Indian mathematicians since ancient times has been to find integer solutions to equations that have the form ax + b = cy, a topic that has come to be known as diophantine equations. Here is an example from Bhaskara’s commentary on Aryabhatiya
  • One of the country’s leading scientists and former ISRO chairman G Madhavan Nair today propounded the theory that some shlokas in the Vedas mentioned about presence of water on the moon and astronomy experts like Aryabhatta knew about gravitational force much before Issac Newton.
  • Aryabhata’s system of astronomy was called the audAyaka system (days are reckoned from uday, dawn at lanka, equator). Some of his later writings on astronomy, which apparently proposed a second model (ardha-rAtrikA, midnight), are lost, but can be partly reconstructed from the discussion in Brahmagupta’s khanDakhAdyaka. In some texts he seems to ascribe the apparent motions of the heavens to the earth’s rotation.
  • Āryabhata claims that the Earth turns on its own axis and some elements of his planetary epicyclic models rotate at the same speed as the motion of the planet around the Sun
  • Aryabhata worked on the approximation for Pi (π), and may have realized that π is irrational. In the second part of the Aryabhatiyam , he writes”chaturadhikam śatamaśaguam dvāśaśistathā sahasrāāmAyutadvayaviśkambhasyāsanno vrîttapariaha.””Add four to 100, multiply by eight and then add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle of diameter 20,000 can be approached.”
  • The number place-value system, first seen in the 3rd century Bakhshali Manuscript was clearly in place in his work; he certainly did not use the symbol, but the French mathematician Georges Ifrah argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata’s place-value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients.
  • Aryabhatasiddhanta circulated mainly in the northwest of India and, through the Sāsānian dynasty (224–651) of Iran, had a profound influence on the development of Islamic astronomy.
  • Aryabhatiya was particularly popular in South India, where numerous mathematicians over the ensuing millennium wrote commentaries. The work was written in verse couplets and deals with mathematics and astronomy. Following an introduction that contains astronomical tables and Aryabhata’s system of phonemic number notation in which numbers are represented by a consonant-vowel monosyllable, the work is divided into three sections: Ganita(“Mathematics”), Kala-kriya (“Time Calculations”), and Gola (“Sphere”).

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