The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.its main function is to remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism. Kidneys are essential to the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and regulation of blood pressure (via maintaining the salt and water balance)
Following are some important information about kidneys
- World kidney day is celebrated on 10 march
- The world near about more than 5 million people undergoes kidney transplant or kidney dialysis
- In 1933 Yuri Voronoy, a Russian surgeon was performed first operation of kidney transplant unsuccessfully
- For the failure of kidneys ,High BP and diabetes may be responsible
- People suffering with ESRD can live longer with help of kidney transplant or dialysis.
- Kidney disease can never be reversed. Its progression can only be slowed down
- . Excessive antacids and milk can form problems related to kidney stones.
- . If one kidney is taken away and the functional capacity of the other kidney is reduced to just 75%, it can still sustain life. This happens because the nephrons are capable of enlarging and handling excess load. This is known as hypertrophy.
- Kidneys maintain constant amount of fluid in the body. The entire blood in the body gets filtered around 400 times in a day through the kidneys.
- The first successful kidney transplant was conducted by Dr. Joseph E. Murray in December 1954. The transplant was between two identical twins. The operation took place in Massachusetts at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital.
- Nephrons are each of the functional units in the kidney, which consist of a glomerulus and its associated tubule, through which the glomerular filtrate passes before emerging as urine.
If the nephrons in both kidneys are taken out and placed end to end horizontally, they will cover a distance of 16 kilometers.
- Function of the Nephrons
Your nephrons help to remove excess water,wastes and other substances from your blood.
It return substances like sodium, potassium or phosphorus whenever any of these substances run low in your body.
Each nephron is composed of two main structures: the glomerulus and renal (kidney) tubule.
- Damage to your nephrons can lead to kidney disease.
- In a day ,Kidneys pump around 400 gallons of recycled blood every day.
- Kidneys filter and return around 200 quarts of fluid into the bloodstream each day. Nearly 2 quarts are lost in form of urine while the remaining 198 quarts are recovered.
- When dehydration sets in, kidneys stop producing enough urine until hydration is restored and blood volume increases.
- Despite the decline in the number of functional nephrons in kidneys after the age of 40, the kidneys continue to function normally because the nephrons have a tendency of enlarging once the demise begins.
- . If the oxygen content of the blood falls, the kidneys can sense that as well. Once the kidneys sense a lack of oxygen, they create a hormone which triggers increased production of red blood cells. RBCs are responsible for carrying oxygen. As RBC count increases, the oxygen content of the blood also increases.
- If the blood pressure in kidneys fall, they start sending out signals to the rest of the body. As a result of these signals, the blood vessels throughout the body become smaller to increase the pressure. This ensures that blood reaches every part of the body.
- . Kidneys are connected to bladder with the help of two tubes known as ureters. It is the bladder where the urine is stored. The urine that we excrete is stored anywhere between 1 and 8 hours. Interesting fact is that we don’t urinate until the bladder is half full. Once the half of the bladder is full, signals are sent to the brain which in turn tells us that it is time to urinate.
- Yet another interesting fact about kidneys is that they are capable of activating vitamin D in our body. This vitamin is usually produced by special skin cells when they are exposed to sunlight. If the skin fails, the job passes on to the livers. If the liver fails, the job finally goes to the kidneys.
- Some children are born with only one kidney. For them, the single kidney eventually grows to the extent where its weight is equal to the combined weight of two kidneys.
- Malfunctioning kidneys can lead to the development of anemia. Studies reveal that most anemic patients usually suffer from some kind of kidney disease
- Pancreas are stimulated by sugar to produce insulin that keeps sugar levels at check. If the sugar level in body increases, excess insulin is produced. This forces the body to excrete extra calcium through urine, which is yet another cause of kidney stones.
- Nearly 500 million people globally (which nearly 10% of global adult population) suffer from some kind of kidney problem/damage. This leads or millions of premature death every year because of Chronic Kidney disease induced cardiovascular diseases.